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Tuesday, November 24, 2015

Climate Action Plan and India's Stand - Important Topic For IAS UPSC Civil Services Exam

Climate Action Plan

Climate Change is one of the most pressing concerns facing the world in present times. The extreme weather events have started to recur with alarming frequency and with great loss of life and property. Though a consensus is gradually emerging globally through UNFCCC, but still a lot needs to be done to slow if not reverse the process of climate change brought upon by human actions. A Climate Action Plan (CAP) is a set of strategies intended to guide efforts for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. I have listed below some of the key points that summarise what all one must know about Climate Action Plan as it is an important topic for IAS/UPSC Civil Services Examination.

-       China, US and EU (European Union) are the top three emitters in the world
  •        India is 4th biggest emitter but its rank is 120th in terms of per capita emission
  •         EU (28 countries grouping) promised to cut emissions by at least 40% from 1990 levels by 2030
  •        US has promised to cut emissions by 26-28% below its 2005 levels by 2025
  •        China has committed to peak its emission around 2030 and also promised to cut its carbon intensity (emissions per unit of GDP) by 60-65% from 2005 levels by 2030
  •    All countries have to submit their INDCs (Intended Nationally Determined Contributions) to UNFCCC (UN Framework Convention on Climate Change)
  •        INDCs is a country’s voluntary pledge of emission cuts (mitigation) and other proposed measures which it will eventually take up as its post 2020 contribution to fight climate change
  •        These INDCs will form the basis of final negotiations for arriving at a global climate deal in Paris in December 2015

India’s Stand 
  • -       India will not announce its peaking (peak emission) year unlike China in its Climate Action Plan which is to be submitted to UN body on Climate Change
  • -   Instead of specifying any timeline to cap its emission of GHGs, India will focus more comprehensively on all 5 key elements which are identified as vital components of global efforts to fight adverse impact of Climate Change which are:

o   Mitigation (emission cuts)
o   Adaptation
o   Finance
o   Technology Transfer
o   Capacity Building
  •      Focus of India’s Climate Action Plan is expected to be on seeking a global commitment on ‘finance’ and ‘technology transfer’ to support its adaptation measures to the growing impact of Climate Change
  • -       India’s stand on negotiations for a global climate deal is based on climate justice and the principles of Equity and Common But Differentiated Responsibilities and Respective Capabilities, under the UNFCCC

                                                                     (c) Civil Services Synopsis

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