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Wednesday, November 11, 2015

Important Topic For IAS/UPSC Civil Services Mains Exam - Surrogacy Ban

·     Government has banned import of human embryos for commercial surrogacy in the backdrop of concerns that India has become an international hub for the practice. From now on import of embryos shall be allowed only for research purposes.

o   Surrogacy arrangement is the carrying of a pregnancy for intended parents. There are two main types of surrogacy, gestational surrogacy and traditional surrogacy. In gestational surrogacy, the pregnancy results from the transfer of an embryo created by in vitro fertilization (IVF), in a manner so the resulting child is genetically unrelated to the surrogate. Gestational surrogates are also referred to as gestational carriers. In traditional surrogacy, the surrogate is impregnated naturally or artificially, but the resulting child is genetically related to the surrogate.

o   Intended parents may seek a surrogacy arrangement when either pregnancy is medically impossible, pregnancy risks present an unacceptable danger to the mother's health or is a same sex couple's preferred method of procreation. Monetary compensation may or may not be involved in these arrangements. If the surrogate receives compensation beyond reimbursement of medical and other reasonable expenses, the arrangement is considered commercial surrogacy; otherwise, it is referred to as altruistic.


o   In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a process by which an egg is fertilised by sperm outside the body: in vitro ("in glass"). The process involves monitoring and stimulating a woman's ovulatory process, removing an ovum or ova (egg or eggs) from the woman's ovaries and letting sperm fertilise them in a liquid in a laboratory. The fertilised egg (zygote) is cultured for 2–6 days in a growth medium and is then implanted in the same or another woman's uterus, with the intention of establishing a successful pregnancy.It is a technique of assisted reproductive technology for treatment of infertility. Some countries ban or otherwise regulate the availability of IVF treatment, giving rise to fertility tourism.

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