Featured Post

Magazine For IAS/UPSC Civil Services Exam Preparation : Civil Services Synopsis

A very common query of civil services examination aspirants is which magazine should be read for comprehensive preparation. The answer to ...

Wednesday, November 18, 2015

United Nations Security Council (UNSC) Reforms - Important Topic For IAS UPSC Civil Services Exam

UNSC (United Nations Security Council) Reforms
1.     UNSC is the body responsible for maintaining global peace and security
2.     UNSC maintains international peace, investigates disputes, recommends solution, calls upon members to apply economic sanctions and at times even take military action on the aggressor
3.     UNSC is responsible for UN peace-keeping operations
4.     UN Charter authorizes UNSC to take action on behalf of the members but these powers are exercised through UNSC Resolutions which are decided by votes of members
5.     While other organs of UN make recommendation to governments, UNSC alone has the power to take decisions which are binding on the members
6.     Composition of UNSC – It has 15 members, 5 Permanent (China , Russia, France, UK, USA), 10 Non-Permanent Members (elected for 2 year term, of which 5 are replaced every year)
7.     Each UNSC member has one vote and any decision or procedural matter requires backing of 9 members
8.     Permanent Members of UNSC have ‘Veto Power’ i.e., if any of these members vote against a resolution, it cannot be passed even if it has the 9 compulsory votes

Criticism of Veto Power
1.     It cripples the UNSC from taking decisions
2.     Permanent Members use it for favoring their close allies (For ex. US always uses Veto in UNSC resolutions critical to Israel)
3.     Makes UNSC akin to an exclusive club of most powerful countries which only take actions for their own interests
4.     UNSC took action to protect Kuwait which had substantial oil reserves while no proper measure was taken to protect thousands of Rwandans from genocide
5.     There is growing demand for reform in UNSC

Reform Proposals
1.     Major issue is regarding expansion of the UNSC and inclusion of non-nuclear permanent members
2.     Some propose abolishing permanency altogether
3.     G4 (Germany, India, Japan and Brazil) are main countries lobbying for a permanent seat in UNSC

4.     Abolition of veto power which cripples functioning of UNSC

No comments: